Mammalian antimicrobial peptides: classification, biological role, perspectives of practical use
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) of phagocytes and epithelial cells are the key effector molecules of the innate immune system, providing the anti-infective host defense. Besides the antimicrobial action AMPs exert a broad spectrum of other biological activities, including various effects towards host cells. Thus, these peptides can be considered not only as antimicrobial agents, but also as potential biomodulators. The review outlines main principles of classification and different types of the biological activity of structurally diverse mammalian AMPs. It discusses specific structure patterns of the largest families of mammalian AMPs and key phases of AMPs interaction with bacterial cells according to the nowadays concept of a mode of their antimicrobial action. AMPs potential in immunomodulation and wound healing, their endotoxin-binding and anticancer capabilities are reviewed. Since AMPs are considered as promising templates for a design of novel therapeutic agents, questions of their structure-activity relationship and mechanisms of bacterial resistance towards such compounds are considered. Problems and perspectives of practical use of AMPs are discussed. Refs 44. Figs 6. Таbles 1.
innate immunity, antimicrobial peptides, defensins, cathelicidins, protegrins, bactenecins
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