The two main types of submissions are “Full communication” (a full length article up to 60 thousand characters with multiple illustrative items, up to 6 figures and 4 tables) and “Brief communication” (short notes of important findings up to 15 thousand characters with 1−2 display items at maximum).
“Review communications” should represent a comprehensive review of current literature of topical and broad interest, and may include perspectives section. As a rule we invite specialists in rapidly developing fields to write a review for us, but unsolicited contributions will be also considered. Please, consult to an editorial board member prior to submission. “Hypotheses” is usually a brief paper, which describes a substantial jump in thinking that is testable but not so easily that readers will wonder why you have not already test it. However, suggestions how to test your hypothesis in principle should be included. For best examples you may consult “Hypotheses” section of Lancet journal. If you cannot express your idea briefly, it is not a hypothesis. Otherwise, a longer paper may include a detailed analysis of existing hypotheses with arguments pro and contra, or review of existing facts with their critical and detailed evaluations to build or to destroy a theory. In this case it should be better considered for the section “Theoretical Communications”.
“Communications arising” highlight one or several research papers published in a recent issue of Biological Communications or another journal, placing the results in context for the journal’s broad readership or rise concerns, support from new evidence or scientific discussion of the published matters. Communications arising are 1,000 words in length with no more than 10 references and one display item.
The structure of the manuscript should be standard, widely accepted in scientific literature (but note possible differences for paleontological or review papers). If the manuscript was previously submitted to another journal, but not accepted, we encourage the authors to notice this fact and the journal title in the cover letter and supply us with the corresponding reviews and decision letter from the editor of that journal.
The main text should be in Word format with the lines and pages numbered throughout the manuscript. A preferable format for figures at initial submission — all figures are numbered and in one low resolution Adobe pdf file. Following these recommendations will allow fast and efficient review process.
A cover letter should include list of five potential reviewers (names, affiliations, and e-mail addresses).
Title page must include: Title, complete names of the author and co-authors with the title of the position held by the author, institutional affiliation and contact information (e-mail addresses). ORCID ID of all authors should be provided for correct analysis of the journal citation metrics. Funding information should be given also at the title page, not in the “Acknowledgments” section of the manuscript. This should be followed by the statement: “The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.” Abstract from 100 to 150 words long for all types of manuscripts and up to 10 keywords should be provided on a separate page.
Figures should be prepared with adequate resolution (300 dpi minimum) and in one of the following formats: JPG or TIF with a RGB/grayscale (100 × 100 mm minimum). Dashed figures (drawings, graphs, charts, diagrams) should be submitted in a black-and-white AI, EPS or CDR format; legends in figures should be 9-point Times New Roman or Symbol.
Tables must be titled in a manner that sufficiently describes their contents and include a detailed legend immediately following the title; each column in a table should have a heading; the table should be placed directly after the paragraph which refers to it; the text format in tables should be 9-point Times New Roman or Symbol.
Formulas and equations should be submitted in a regular MS Word plug-in, via MathType, or in the Equation Editor in OpenOffice Math. Footnotes are not recommended.
Human or animal subjects and/or tissue or field sampling: Methods sections describing research using human or animal subjects and/or tissue or field sampling must include required ethics statements.
References: The recommended number of references is 30 for Brief Communications, 50−100 for Full Communications, and may include 200 items for Review and Theoretical Communications, but in no case may exceed 300 since they otherwise can not be all displayed at the article page as metadata. Exceptions should be discussed with the Editor-in-Chief prior to submission and well reasoned.
References should be prepared according to the Biological Communications house style, preferably using EndNote programm (EndNote Style for Biological Communications) to avoid mistakes in layout and formatting. This means in text citations should follow the date-author method whereby last names of up to four authors (if more, then abbreviated: et al.) and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, for example, (Lotharius and Brundin, 2002; Bradley-Johnson, 1994; Braak, et al. 2003; Watanabe, Nishiushi, Kulichikhin, and Nakazono, 2013). The complete reference list should appear alphabetically by name at the end of the paper. The full source name should be provided. A sample of the most common entries in reference lists appears below. We recommend that a full DOI link is provided for all references where available.
Braak, H., Del Tredici, K., Rub, U., de Vos, R. A., Jansen Steur, E. N., and Braak, E. 2003. Staging of brain pathology related to sporadic Parkinson's disease. Neurobiology of Aging 24(2):197−211. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0197-4580(02)00065-9
Bradley-Johnson, S. 1994. Psychoeducational assessment of students who are visually impaired or blind: Infancy through high school (2nd ed.). Austin, TX: Pro-ed.
Lotharius, J. and Brundin, P. 2002. Pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease: Dopamine, vesicles and alpha-synuclein. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 3(12):932−942. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn983
Watanabe, K., Nishiuchi, S., Kulichikhin, K., and Nakazono, M. 2013. Does suberin accumulation in plant roots contribute to waterlogging tolerance? Frontiers in Plant Science 4:178. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2013.00178
Citations that use Roman script marked with diacritics should employ standard use Unicode encoding. Titles in Cyrillic should be translated into English as in the following examples:
Averianov, A. O. and Skutschas, P. P. 2000. A vertebrate assemblage from the Early Cretaceous of Transbaikalia (locality Mogoito); pp. 357−358 in A. V. Komarov (ed.), Materials of the Regional Conference of the Geologists of Siberia, Far East and North East of Russia. GalaPress, Tomsk. (In Russian)
Ivanov, B. A. 1940. On the age of the carboniferous deposits of Transbaikalia. Sovetskaya Geologiya 11:45−54. (In Russian)
Nesov, L. A. 1995. Dinosaurs of Northern Eurasia: New Data about Assemblages, Ecology and Paleobiogeography. 156 pp. Izdatelstvo Sankt-Peterburgskogo Universiteta, Saint Petersburg. (In Russian)
For further formatting examples, please, consult to the latest issue of Biological Communications as the rules may be subject to change.
1. Subject Matter of the Agreement
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4.2. If a claim is made against the Licensee in connection with infringement of exclusive rights to intellectual property owned by third parties relating to the creation of the Work or the conclusion by the Author(s) of this Agreement, the Author(s) shall, immediately after receiving the notice from the Licensee, take measures to resolve any disputes with the third parties; take all possible actions to indemnify and hold harmless the Licensee from any claim thereof; reimburse legal costs, charges and expenses incurred by the Licensee in connection with application of injunctive relief and execution of the court decision, and the amounts paid to a third party for infringement of exclusive rights to intellectual property owned by third parties, as well as any other losses incurred by the Licensee in connection with the non-compliance of the Author(s) with the guarantees provided by them under this Agreement.
4.3. The parties agree and consent to the reproduction of the text of this Agreement and signatures of the Parties to this Agreement and other documents related to its conclusion and execution by means of mechanical, electronic and any other copying of the handwritten signature and the text of the Agreement, which would have the same legal force as the actual handwritten signature of the Party and the original document. Facsimile, electronic copies of the documents are valid and shall have equal legal force with the original.
4.4. The Parties agreed that the correspondence of the Parties in connection with the execution of this Agreement by the Author(s) shall be done by Pavel Skutschas. The Author(s) approve, do not mind and would not object to the fact that information received by Licensee from Pavel Skutschas is approved and agreed by all the Authors. The Parties agreed the following details for communicating with the Author(s): Address: Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Universitetskaya nab., 7/9, Saint Petersburg State University, 199034 Saint Petersburg, Russia. Telephone, Fax: +7 (812) 328-96-89, e-mail: email@example.com.
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