The two main types of submissions are “Full communication” (a full length article up to 60 thousand characters with multiple illustrative items, up to 6 figures and 4 tables) and “Brief communication” (short notes of important findings up to 15 thousand characters with 1−2 display items at maximum).
“Review communications” should represent a comprehensive review of current literature of topical and broad interest, and may include perspectives section. As a rule we invite specialists in rapidly developing fields to write a review for us, but unsolicited contributions will be also considered. Please, consult to an editorial board member prior to submission. “Hypotheses” is usually a brief paper, which describes a substantial jump in thinking that is testable but not so easily that readers will wonder why you have not already test it. However, suggestions how to test your hypothesis in principle should be included. For best examples you may consult “Hypotheses” section of Lancet journal. If you cannot express your idea briefly, it is not a hypothesis. Otherwise, a longer paper may include a detailed analysis of existing hypotheses with arguments pro and contra, or review of existing facts with their critical and detailed evaluations to build or to destroy a theory. In this case it should be better considered for the section “Theoretical Communications”.
“Communications arising” highlight one or several research papers published in a recent issue of Biological Communications or another journal, placing the results in context for the journal’s broad readership or rise concerns, support from new evidence or scientific discussion of the published matters. Communications arising are 1,000 words in length with no more than 10 references and one display item.
The structure of the manuscript should be standard, widely accepted in scientific literature (but note possible differences for paleontological or review papers). If the manuscript was previously submitted to another journal, but not accepted, we encourage the authors to notice this fact and the journal title in the cover letter and supply us with the corresponding reviews and decision letter from the editor of that journal.
The main text should be in Word format with the lines and pages numbered throughout the manuscript.
All figures and tables should be placed at the end of the manuscript file. Figures and tables should be numbered and should have brief descriptive titles. Legends and footnotes should be placed below the figure or table.
Figures must also be submitted as the separate files with high resolution (300 dpi minimum) and in one of the following formats: JPG or TIF (preferable) with a RGB/grayscale (100 × 100 mm minimum). Dashed figures (drawings, graphs, charts, diagrams) should be submitted in a black-and-white AI, EPS or CDR format; legends in figures should be 9-point Arial or Symbol.
All presented data, results, and illustrations must be in accordance with our Ethical guidelines for authors.
Title page must include: Title, complete names of the author and co-authors with the title of the position held by the author, institutional affiliation and contact information (e-mail addresses). ORCID ID of all authors should be provided for correct analysis of the journal citation metrics. Funding information should be given also at the title page, not in the “Acknowledgments” section of the manuscript. This should be followed by the statement: “The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.” Abstract from 100 to 150 words long for all types of manuscripts and up to 10 keywords should be provided on a separate page.
Formulas and equations should be submitted in a regular MS Word plug-in, via MathType, or in the Equation Editor in OpenOffice Math. Footnotes are not recommended.
A cover letter including list of at least five potential reviewers (names, affiliations, and e-mail addresses) should be uploaded in the Submission system as the separate file (Word or Pdf formats are acceptable).
Human or animal subjects and/or tissue or field sampling: In all cases, Methods sections describing research using human or animal subjects and/or tissue or field sampling must include all required ethics statements and research protocols described in details.
Our requirements for studies containing human subjects are: (1) the approval by relevant ethics committee(s) must be obtained prior research. The ethics committee that approved the study, the resolution number and date of the approval must be clearly indicated in the article; (2) the authors must confirm and clearly indicate in the article that their study was performed according to the principles of The Code of Ethics of the World Medical Association (Declaration of Helsinki); (3) the informed consent must be obtained from all individual participants (patients or volunteers) of the study and documented in the paper. All submitted manuscripts are checked for documented evidence of the patient's consent to publication and any potentially deanonymizing information. Material containing personal information about a patient without their consent will not be considered for peer review process and publication. The scanned copies of consent should not be provided to the journal during submission but documented evidence that such consents have been obtained must be provided to Publisher upon request.
Our requirements for studies containing animal subjects are: (1) the approval by relevant ethics committee(s) must be obtained prior research. The ethics committee that approved the study, the approval number and date of the approval must be clearly indicated in the article; (2) all animal experiments should comply with the ARRIVE guidelines and other regulating standards that must be clearly indicated in the text; (3) the authors must provide detailed information on the animal welfare including diet, housing, methods of anesthesia and sacrifice if appropriate.
Our requirements for studies containing cell lines are: (1) origins and sources of all cell lines used in the study should be clearly indicated; (2) in case of de novo obtained cell lines the approval by relevant ethics committee(s) and consent from the donor (for human cell line) must be obtained prior research. The ethics committee that approved the study, the approval number and date of the approval must be clearly indicated in the article. The scanned copies of consent forms should not be provided to the journal during submission but documented evidence that such consents have been obtained must be provided to Publisher upon request.
Data sharing policy: We require authors to make all data necessary to replicate their research findings publicly available without restriction at the time of publication. When specific legal or ethical restrictions prohibit public sharing of a data set, authors must indicate how others may obtain access to the data. Attaching large datasets to the supplementary section is strongly discouraged, with data availability through the third-party data repositories suggested as the preferred option. For the following types of data set submission to a public repository is mandatory: protein sequences, DNA and RNA sequences, DNA and RNA sequencing data, genetic polymorphism data, macromolecular structure, gene expression data, proteomics data. Data repository names and respective accession numbers must be provided in the paper. A list of approved and recommended data repositories can be found at “Data Repository Guidance”. All published manuscripts reporting original research must include a data availability statement.
Conflict of interest: In order to avoid unfair actions during publication, any conflict of interest of all participants in the editorial process must be eliminated. Biological Communications follows the guidelines designed by the international Committee on Publication Ethics (СОРЕ). The authors should clearly indicate in the “Competing interests” section all possible conflicts of interests: financial, non-financial, personal, and professional that occurred within 5 years of starting the research. If there is no conflict of interest, the phrase “The authors have declared that no competing interests exist” must be incorporated in the corresponding section.
Supplementary information: Biological Communications publishes additional data that are not included in the main text of the article as an electronic supplement which can be accessed via hyperlinks in the “Supplementary information” section. Supplementary files are published as submitted by the authors, and are not copy-edited.
References: The recommended number of references is 30 for Brief Communications, 50−100 for Full Communications, and may include 200 items for Review and Theoretical Communications, but in no case may exceed 300 since they otherwise can not be all displayed at the article page as metadata. Exceptions should be discussed with the Editor-in-Chief prior to submission and well reasoned.
References should be prepared according to the Biological Communications house style, preferably using EndNote (EndNote Style for Biological Communications) or Zotero (Zotero Style for Biological Communications) to avoid mistakes in layout and formatting. This means in text citations should follow the date-author method whereby last names of up to four authors (if more, then abbreviated: et al.) and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, for example, (Lotharius and Brundin, 2002; Bradley-Johnson, 1994; Braak, et al. 2003; Watanabe, Nishiushi, Kulichikhin, and Nakazono, 2013). The complete reference list should appear alphabetically by name at the end of the paper. The full source name should be provided. A sample of the most common entries in reference lists appears below. We recommend that a full DOI link is provided for all references where available.
Braak, H., Del Tredici, K., Rub, U., de Vos, R. A., Jansen Steur, E. N., and Braak, E. 2003. Staging of brain pathology related to sporadic Parkinson's disease. Neurobiology of Aging 24(2):197−211. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0197-4580(02)00065-9
Bradley-Johnson, S. 1994. Psychoeducational assessment of students who are visually impaired or blind: Infancy through high school (2nd ed.). Austin, TX: Pro-ed.
Lotharius, J. and Brundin, P. 2002. Pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease: Dopamine, vesicles and alpha-synuclein. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 3(12):932−942. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn983
Watanabe, K., Nishiuchi, S., Kulichikhin, K., and Nakazono, M. 2013. Does suberin accumulation in plant roots contribute to waterlogging tolerance? Frontiers in Plant Science 4:178. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2013.00178
Citations that use Roman script marked with diacritics should employ standard use Unicode encoding. Titles in Cyrillic should be translated into English as in the following examples:
Averianov, A. O. and Skutschas, P. P. 2000. A vertebrate assemblage from the Early Cretaceous of Transbaikalia (locality Mogoito); pp. 357−358 in A. V. Komarov (ed.), Materials of the Regional Conference of the Geologists of Siberia, Far East and North East of Russia. GalaPress, Tomsk. (In Russian)
Ivanov, B. A. 1940. On the age of the carboniferous deposits of Transbaikalia. Sovetskaya Geologiya 11:45−54. (In Russian)
Nesov, L. A. 1995. Dinosaurs of Northern Eurasia: New Data about Assemblages, Ecology and Paleobiogeography. 156 pp. Izdatelstvo Sankt-Peterburgskogo Universiteta, Saint Petersburg. (In Russian)
For further formatting examples, please, consult to the latest issue of Biological Communications as the rules may be subject to change.
1. Subject Matter of the Agreement
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