Editorial Board

Dr. Pavel P. Skutschas
Associate Professor, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Saint Petersburg State University, Saint Petersburg, Russia

Pavel SkutschasPavel Skutschas graduated from the Faculty of Biology of Saint Petersburg State University in 2001. Pavel has a broad interest in vertebrate palaeontology, with the particular focus on the evolution of Asiatic dinosaurian faunas and phylogeny of several groups of tetrapods, including amphibians, crocodiles, dinosaurs, and mammals. Pavel's research has been published in a range of international scientific journals. Since January 2019 he has been working as the Editor-in-Chief of Biological Communications.

Deputy Editors-in-Chief
Dr. Alla V. Krasikova
Associate Professor, Leader of the Group “Structure and Dinamics of the Cell Nucleus”, Department of Cytology and Histology, Faculty of Biology, Saint Petersburg State University, Saint Petersburg, Russia

Alla KrasikovaAlla Krasikova graduated from the Faculty of Physics and Mechanics of Saint Petersburg State Polytechnical University in 2003 with initial specialization in biophysics. Alla obtained her PhD degree in the Department of Cytology and Histology at Saint Petersburg State University in 2007. Her research is focused on genome architecture, structure and functions of mitotic and meiotic chromosomes, compartmentalization of the cell nucleus, formation of nuclear bodies and the role of non-coding RNAs. Alla’s work has been published in a number of international peer-reviewed journals, including Nucleic Acids Research, Scientific Reports, PloS One, Nucleus, Chromosoma and BMC Genomics. She is a member of the European Cytogeneticists Association. Alla is also the winner of a National L'Oreal-UNESCO fellowship within the programme "For Women in Science" and a Leonhard Euler Prize for outstanding scientific achievements in the field of science and technology from the government of Saint Petersburg. She joined the journal in 2014 and became Deputy Editor-in-Chief in the end of 2017.

Dr. Anton A. Nizhnikov
Head, Laboratory for Proteomics of Supra-Organismal Systems, All-Russia Research Institute of Agricultural Microbiology, Saint Petersburg, Russia
Associate Professor, Department of Genetics and Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, Saint Petersburg State University, Saint Petersburg, Russia


Anton A. NizhnikovAnton Nizhnikov graduated from Faculty of Biology of Saint Petersburg State University (SPbSU) in 2010 with initial specialization in yeast genetics. He defended his PhD thesis focused on the study of yeast prions in 2013. His postdoctoral fellowship (2014–2016) was focused on the proteomics, biochemistry and structural biology of amyloid- and prion-forming proteins. Since 2017, Dr. Nizhnikov serves as Head of Laboratory for Proteomics of Supra-Organismal Systems at All-Russia Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology (ARRIAM) and Associate Professor at Department of Genetics and Biotechnology of Saint Petersburg State University. Dr. Nizhnikov was elected in 2015 and continues to serve as Scientific Secretary of Russian Genetic Society, 'Vavilov Society of Geneticists and Breeders'. His scientific interests include structural and functional proteomics; bioinformatics, computational and systems biology; metaproteomics or proteomics of supra-organismal systems; bacterial, yeast and plant genetics and genomics; biochemistry and molecular biology of toxins; symbiogenetics; molecular biology of symbioses and host-pathogen interactions; structural biology of proteins and protein complexes; history of biology. Main findings of Dr. Nizhnikov and his colleagues have been published in more than 30 papers in peer-review journals including PLoS Genetics, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Genes, Toxins, PLoS One, Current Genetics, Prion, Genes to Cells, Evolutionary Bioinformatics. He joined Editorial Board of Biological Communications in 2017 as Section Editor for Genetics and Proteomics and was invited in 2019 as Deputy Editor-in-Chief.

Editorial Assistant
Roman G. Khalikov
Leading Engineer, IT Department, Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg, Russia
Head, Telecommunications Group, Komarov Botanical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg, Russia

Roman KhalikovRoman Khalikov graduated with a Master's in Biology (herpetology) from the Faculty of Biology and Soil Science of Saint Petersburg State University in 2001. Since 2000 he has been affiliated with the Zoological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Saint Petersburg, where he is engaged in numerous projects in the field of information technologies in zoology: corporate network infrastructure development, taxonomic and biodiversity client-server databases management, online data publishing and prepress. In 2009 he was invited to Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Saint Petersburg and carried out a large-scale modernization of its corporate network, to the present day heading the Telecommunications Group there. He is an editor of “Russian Journal of Herpetology” (since 2003) and an editorial board member of “Current Studies in Herpetology” (since 2016).

English Editor
Josie Lee Boyle

Josie BoyleJosie Boyle completed her bachelor's degree at Saint Olaf College (United States) in 2012 with a double major in Russian language and biology. In 2012 she received a Critical Language Scholarship from American Councils and, subsequently, a CLS Alumni Development Grant to fund continued study of Russian. In 2017 she graduated from Middlebury College (United States) with a master's degree in Russian. Josie wrote her thesis on the conquest of nature in Soviet ideology and literature. She joined our team as English editor in 2017.


Editorial Board

Prof. Evgeny V. Abakumov
Head, Department of Applied Ecology, Faculty of Biology, Saint Petersburg State University, Saint Petersburg, Russia

Evgeny AbakumovEvgeny Abakumov graduated from the Faculty of Biology of Saint Petersburg State University in 2001. He is studying the soil-biological interactions in polar, mountain, and other extreme environments. Evgeny has published much in such journals as Eurasian Soil Science, Polarforschung, Solid Earth. Having a broad experience in soil geography, taxonomy, restoration and spectroscopic methods of natural organic matter research he joined Biological Communications (at that time — Vestnik of Saint Petersburg University, Series Biology) as an Associate Editor for soil biology, soil ecology, and polar soil science.

Prof. Virginia Abdala
Vice-director, Instituto de Biodiversidad Neotropical of the Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, Tucumán, Argentina

Virginia AbdalaVirginia Abdala graduated from the Faculty of Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, Argentina in 1984 with initial specialization in herpetology. Virginia’s research interests have broadened much and now she is working in Comparative Morphology of Vertebrates. She is vice-director of the Instituto de Biodiversidad Neotropical (IBN) of the Universidad Nacional de Tucumán and CONICET, the most important institution promoting Sciences in Argentina. She is also Professor of the General Biology at the Facultad of Natural Sciences e IML, UNT, Argentina. Virginia has published more than 90 papers on vertebrates comparative morphology, is co- author of two books on myology of Tetrapods and Vertebrates. She is one of the editors of the first book on Vertebrate Comparative Morphology published in Argentina. She is also member of the Editorial Board of “PeerJ” and “Acta Zoologica”.

Dr. Natalia V. Alenina
Researcher, Group of Molecular Biology of Peptide Hormones, Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine, Helmholtz Gemainschaft, Berlin, Germany

Natalia AleninaNatalia Alenina obtained her master at St. Petersburg Technical State University, Russia and her PhD degree (Dr. rer. nat) at the Chemistry and Pharmacy Faculty, Free University of Berlin, Germany. After completing her PhD thesis, mainly focused on studies of cardiovascular system using genetically modified animal models, Natalia changed the scientific field to serotonin research and stem cell science and started to work as a postdoc at Max-Delbrück-Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC), Berlin, Germany. In her further work she concentrated on the role of central serotonergic system on metabolism, behavior and brain function. She published more than 80 original papers including PNAS, Hypertension, Cell Cycle, Nature Medicine, Journal of Experimental Medicine, and Journal of Neuroscience. She joined Biological Communications in 2016 as an Associate Editor for neuroscience, developmental biology, and stem cell research.

Prof. Dr. Dr. h.c. Thomas C. G. Bosch
Head, Institute of Zoology, vice-rector, Christian-Albrechts-Universitat zu Kiel, Kiel, Germany

Thomas BoschThomas Bosch studied biology at the University of Munich, Germany, and Swansea, United Kingdom and earned his doctorate at the University of Munich in 1986. Since 2000, Bosch has been a professor of general zoology at Kiel University. From 2010 to 2013, he served as vice president of Kiel University. Since 2013 Thomas Bosch is heading the interdisciplinary research center “Kiel Life Science” (KLS). He is also principal investigator and coordinator of the Collaborative Research Center (CRC/SFB 1182) “Origin and Function of Metaorganisms” (2016–2019) which addresses the role of multi-organismic interactions for health and disease. Bosch is Past-President of the Society for Developmental Biology (Gesellschaft für Entwicklungsbiologie, GfE). He is the recipient of numerous awards including in 2004 an honorary doctorate degree from St. Petersburg State University, Russia. Since 2016, Bosch is Senior Fellow of the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR) and also Fellow of the Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin.

Dr. Cinzia Chiandetti
Assistant Professor, Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, Trieste, Italy

Cinzia ChiandettiCinzia Chiandetti graduated in Psychology at the University of Padova (Italy) and obtained her PhD in Neuroscience at B.R.A.I.N. Centre for Neuroscience, University of Trieste (Italy). She has been a post-doc at CIMeC Centre for Mind/Brain Sciences, University of Trento (Italy) and she gained experience in foreign labs as visiting researcher (Dept. of Neurology at The Houston Methodist Hospital, Texas; University of Cambridge, UK; Hokkaido University, Japan; Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Germany) working on different projects, from the development of cerebral lateralization to the biological roots of the musical appreciation. She won a L'Oréal fellowship for Women in Science in 2010 with a project on naïve physics in chicks and since the same year she is Review Editor for Frontiers in Comparative Psychology. She is active in disseminating the scientific achievements of the field to the broad public and her research has attracted national and international media attention.

Dr. Maria V. Gavrilo
Association Maritime Heritage: sustain and explore, Commission on natural heritage and Marine Specially Protected Areas, Saint Petersburg, Russia

Maria GavriloMaria Gavrilo graduated from the Faculty of Biology of Saint Petersburg State University in 1984 majoring in vertebrate zoology in polar regions, mostly in the marine Arctic. During her research work in the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute and National Park Russian Arctic she accumulated massive amount of material on contemporary state of seabird and marine mammal populations, and environment in polar regions, human impact on marine ecosystems and nature conservation. Maria has extended field experience being participated in more than 40 expeditions as a scientist and scientific leader. She published her results in such journals as Aquatic conservation: marine and freshwater ecosystems, PeerJ, Arctic, Journal of Ornithology, The Arctic, Ibis, Polar Biology. Having a broad experience in polar marine biodiversity, environmental impact assessment and specially protected areas, as well as in polar exploration as a whole, she joined Biological Communications editorial board as Section Editor for polar zoology and ecology and marine conservation in 2018.

Prof. Alexander V. Dmitriev
Vice Director, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Saint-Petersburg, Russia

Alexander DmitrievAlexander Dmitriev graduated from the Department of Molecular Biotechnology at Saint Petersburg State Technological Institute in 1993 with initial specialization in molecular biotechnology. He defended a PhD degree in biochemistry in 1997 and a Dr.Sc. degree in microbiology and biochemistry in 2004. Alexander has a broad spectrum of scientific interests, such as molecular microbiology and epidemiology, genetic engineering, structural and functional genomics and proteomics, gene regulation, virulence of pathogenic bacteria and viruses, etc. Alexander has had long-term cooperation with various institutions in Slovakia, China, Vietnam, USA, Portugal and other countries. Alexander has attended numerous conferences and congresses worldwide, and he has been awarded different prizes and awards, including international ones. He joined the journal in 2017 as section editor for Microbiology and Biochemistry.

Prof. Michael L. Firsov
Director, Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg, Russia

Michael FirsovMichael Firsov graduated from Biophysical department of the Faculty of Physics and Mechanics of the Leningrad Polytechnic Institute in 1985 and completed PhD training in 1988 at post-grad school of I.M. Sechenov Institute of Evolutionary Physiology and Biochemistry of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Michael completed several postdoctoral trainings at University of Michigan, University of Boston Medical School, and Helsinki University of Technology (Aalto University) in 1990–2000. He worked as research scientist, then head of the lab, and since 2015 ― Director of Sechenov Institute. The main area of scientific interests ― sensory physiology, photoreception of vertebrates, study of the mechanisms of phototransduction of vertebrates. He was invited to Biological Communications in 2016 as Section Editor for Physiology.

Dr. Alla I. Ignashchenkova
Research Associate, Abteilung Kognitive Neurologie, Universitatsklinikum Tubingen, Eberhard Karls Universitat Tubingen, Tubingen, Germany

Alla IgnashchenkovaAlla Ignashchenkova is an Associate Editor handling the field of neuroscience. Alla obtained her PhD from the University of Tuebingen, Germany, studying neuronal mechanisms underlying covert shifts of attention in primates. With her postdoctoral work in the Peter Thier’s lab of Cognitive Neurology at the Hertie Institute for Clinical Brain Research in Tuebingen she continued investigating neuronal networks involved in redirecting visual attention. Later, as a research associate at the Center of Integrative Neuroscience in Tuebingen she studied the interaction between selective attention and eye movements. Her main findings are published in Current Biology, Nature Neuroscience, Journal of Neuroscience.

Prof. Cezary Kabala
Institute of Soil Science and Environmental Protection, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Wroclaw, Poland

Cezary KabalaCezary Kabala graduated from the Agricultural University of Wroclaw (Poland) in 1993 with initial specialization in soil and environmental sciences. Since 1993 he has been affiliated with the Institute of Soil Science and Environmental Protection of the Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, where he is engaged in numerous projects at the interfaces between pedology, agriculture, forestry, geography, and archeology. His particular topics are the soil genesis in relation to environmental factors, soil taxonomy, soil contamination and remediation. He is a member of Committee for Agriculture of Polish Academy of Sciences, vice-president of Soil Science Society of Poland, and scientific boards of two national parks of SW Poland. He is an editorial board member of “Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science” (since 2006), “Environmental Geochemistry and Health” (since 2011), “Catena” (since 2015), “Soil Science Annual” (since 2010); also served as guest editor in “Geoderma” (2016).

Dr. Olga V. Kalinina
Leading Researcher, Laboratory of Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics, Saint-Petersburg Pasteur Institute, Saint Petersburg, Russia

Olga KalininaOlga Kalinina graduated from the Faculty of Biology of Leningrad State University (currently — Saint-Petersburg State University), with initial specialization in microbiology. She defended PhD degree in virology in 2000 and Dr.Sc. degree in virology in 2013. As part of her research career, she collaborated with various institutions belonging to the International Pasteur Network, the Baltic Network for control and prevention of life-threatening viral infections, the Swedish Institute for Infectious Disease Control, the Russian-Vietnamese Tropical Centre. Her research interests include molecular diagnostics and molecular genetics of infectious agents, viral hepatitis, epidemiology and phylodynamics, genetic determinants associated to the hepatocarcinoma, genetic determinants of viruses and bacteria that affect the resistance of circulating pathogens in the population and result in the development of drug resistance. She joined the journal in 2017 as section editor for Microbiology and Biochemistry.

Dr. Dunja Knapp
Researcher at DFG-Center for Regenerative Therapies Dresden, Technische Universitat Dresden, Dresden, Germany

Dunja KnappDunja Knapp obtained the bachelor’s degree in Molecular Biology from the University of Zagreb, Croatia and PhD in Genetics from the University of Vienna, Austria where she studied regulation of cell cycle progression in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. After completing her PhD she moved to UK (first NIMR in London and then Wellcome Trust and Gurdon Institutes in Cambridge) where she worked towards understanding the early embryonic development using Xenopus as a model organism. Since 2005 she has been affiliated with Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics and then with Center for Regenerative Therapies Dresden, Germany. Since that time the focus of her research has been to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms of limb regeneration in the salamander Ambystoma mexicanum. Her main findings are published in Cell, Nature, Molecular and Cellular Biology, and PLOS One. She also contributed a chapter "Regeneration in Anamniotic Vertebrates" in the book Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine. Since 2013 Dunja has been an associate faculty member of F1000.

Prof. Dmitrii E. Korzhevskii
Head, Laboratory of Functional Morphology of the Central and Peripheral Neural System, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Saint Petersburg, Russia

Dmitrii KorzhevskiiDmitrii E. Korzhevskii graduated from Pavlov First Saint Petersburg State Medical University in 1988. In 2000, he defended his doctoral dissertation (MD) in cell biology, cytology and histology, and became a Professor of the Russian Academy of Sciences in 2014. Dr. Korzhevskii is a leading Russian morphologist of the central and peripheral nervous system. His research focuses on problems of neurogenesis and response of nerve and glial cells to damage. His scientific interests concern the elaboration and application of new morphological methods for the studies of structural features of the brain of laboratory animals and humans in ontogeny and pathology. He edited a number of books and manuals on applications of immunohistochemical methods, fluorescent and confocal microscopy to the study of relationships between structural elements in the brain. Dr. Korzhevskii is the author of over 400 peer reviewed articles and book chapters published in leading journals including the Neurochemical Journal, European Journal of Histochemistry, Biometals, Acta Naturae, Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases. For many years, Dmitrii Korzhevskii is a member of the editorial boards of journals “Morfologiia” and “Genes and Cells”, and since 2016 he is a Section Editor for neurobiology and developmental biology in Biological Communications.

Dr. Mikhail A. Kostylev
Researcher, School of Medicine, Yale University New Haven, Connecticut, United States

Mikhail KostylevMikhail Kostylev graduated from St. Petersburg State University in 2009, initially specializing in developmental biology. He then continued his education at Yale University working on the molecular mechanisms driving the neurotoxicity of the pathogenic protein aggregates in Alzheimer's disease. Mikhail obtained his PhD in cell biology from Yale in 2015 and continued his work there as a postdoctoral researcher at the department of neurology. He has broad interest in cellular and molecular neuroscience, with particular focus on the role that the molecular self-assembly, protein aggregation and biomolecular phase separation plays in regulating various aspects of cellular physiology and pathology. Mikhail's research has been published in a range of high-impact journals including Neuron, Journal of Biological Chemistry, Nature Neuroscience and Brain.

Dr. Anna B. Malashicheva
Head, Laboratory of Regenerative Biomedicine, Institute of Cytology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg, Russia
Head, Laboratory of Molecular Cardiology, Almazov National Medical Research Centre, Saint Petersburg, Russia

Prof. Stephen J. O’Brien
Leading Researcher, Head, Theodosius Dobzhansky Center for Genome Bioinformatics, Saint Petersburg State University, Saint Petersburg, Russia

Stephen J. O’BrienDr. Stephen J. OBrien is a world leading molecular biologist and dedicated conservationist whom uses the tools of molecular biology to help protect endangered species and understand devastating diseases such as cancer and AIDS. He received his PhD in Genetics from Cornell University, USA in 1971. He then joined the prestigious National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health as a post-doc in 1971 and there, served as Founder and Chief of the Laboratory of Genomic Diversity from 1986–2012. In 2012, he founded the Theodosius Dobzhansky Center for Genome Bioinformatics, St. Petersburg State University and today serves as the Chief Scientific Officer; his dedication was honored in 2016 by his nomination and election to the Russian Academy of Sciences. In 2013 he was appointed Professor and Research Director at Nova Southeastern University in Ft Lauderdale, FL. Convinced of the utility of exploring diverse species to advance our understanding of the human genome, Dr. O’Brien and his team have assembled over 62,000 animal and 424,000 human tissue/DNA specimens, facilitating wide-ranging studies of disease gene associations, species adaptation and natural history. His research interests and expertise span human and comparative genomics, genetic epidemiology, AIDS, cancers, retro-virology, bioinformatics, biodiversity and species conservation. Dr. O’Brien is known for documenting the remarkable genetic uniformity of African cheetahs, resolving the mammalian tree of life, describing heretofore unrecognized species of orangutans, African forest elephants and Bornean clouded leopards. He is credited with the discovery and characterization of CCR5-∆32, the first of ~50 human AIDS restriction genes, which imparts natural immunity to HIV, leading to novel AIDS therapies. He is the one of the founders of the Genome 10K initiative, has published over 850 leading research papers, written multiple books and is adjunct professor in 12 international leading universities. He authored a popular book of science adventure stories — “Tears of the Cheetah” — which has been adopted by a few dozen USA universities as required reading for non-major science freshman. The Chinese translation of “Tears of the Cheetah” was ranked in the top ten science books in China for 2015. He is considered a “National Treasure” by many leading scientists in the US. He was invited to Biological Communications as Section Editor for comparative genomics, genetics and bioinformatics in 2014.

Prof. Vladimir G. Onipchenko
Head, Department of Geobotany, Faculty of Biology, Moscow Lomonosov State University, Moscow, Russia

Vladimir OnipchenkoVladimir Onipchenko graduated from the Faculty of Biology of Moscow State University in 1980. His scientific interests include general problems of plant ecology and alpine ecology especially. He has more than 300 publications including papers in Ecology Letters, Ecology, Functional Ecology, Journal of Ecology and Journal of Vegetation Science. Having a broad experience in plant science, alpine ecology and vegetation sciences, he has joined editorial boards of eight international and Russian journals, and now — in 2017 — Biological Communications, as section editor for Geobotany and Plant Ecology.

Dr. Andrey O. Plotnikov
Head, Resource Center “Persistence of Microorganisms”, Institute for Cellular and Intracellular Symbiosis, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Orenburg, Russia
Associate Professor/Docent, Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Orenburg State Medical University, Orenburg, Russia

Andrey PlotnikovAndrey Plotnikov obtained his MD degree in 1999 at the Orenburg State Medical Academy, Orenburg, Russia and his PhD degree in the Department of Microbiology, Virology and Immunology at the same university in 2002. After completing his PhD thesis, he continued his research work in the Institute for Cellular and Intracellular Symbiosis, Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Orenburg, Russia as a researcher of the Laboratory of Water Microbiology. Since 2014 he is head of the newly founded Resource Center “Persistence of Microorganisms” which provides services in DNA high-throughput sequencing of pro- and eukaryotes. His scientific interests involve diversity, biology and ecology of water protists, especially Heterolobosea and Centrohelida groups; their symbiotic and associative relationships with prokaryotes, including pathogens and opportunists; phenomenon of pathogens survival in water ecosystems; genomics of pathogenic bacteria; and helmihth-bacterial interactions. He is a member of the International Society of Protistologists (ISOP). Andrey's research has been published in a range of international protistological journals, such as Protist, Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, Acta Protozoologica, Protistology.

Prof. Oleg L. Serov
Head, Laboratory of Developmental Genetics, Federal Research Center of the Institute of Cytology and Genetics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia

Dr. Nikita V. Zelenkov
Head, Cabineth of Palaeoornithology, Borissiak Palaeontological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

Nikita ZelenkovNikita Zelenkov graduated from the Faculty of Biology of Lomonosov Moscow State University in 2005. Since 2004, he has been affiliated with the Paleontological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow, where he is now heading the Cabineth of Paleornithology. The subject area includes systematics, evolution, phylogeny and functional morphology of fossil and modern birds. Nikita is an author or a co-author of dozens of papers in international peer-reviewed journals, including Biology Letters of the Royal Society, Royal Society Open Science, Journal of Systematic Palaeontology, Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, Journal of Ornithology. He is also the winner of a Hans Rausing Prize for the best publication in paleontology (2015). Since 2008 he has been serving as the scientific editor of Paleontological Journal (Moscow) and joined Biological Communications as an Associate Editor for palaentology in 2016. Photo is granted by Oleg Belyalov.