Proliferation activity in the polyps of Cassiopea xamachana: where the planuloid buds grow

  • Valeriia Khabibulina Department of Invertebrate Zoology, Faculty of Biology, Saint Petersburg State University, Universitetskaya nab., 7–9, Saint Petersburg, 199034, Russian Federation https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5019-8604
  • Viktor Starunov Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Universitetskaya nab., 1, 199034, Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9001-2069

Abstract

Polyps of the Cassiopeidae family possess a unique type of asexual reproduction by producing free-swimming buds — planuloids. The process of planuloid development and transformation to polyp has been described earlier, however, the source of tissue formation is still poorly studied. Using the method of EdU incorporation we have analyzed DNA synthesis activity during planuloid formation and growth in Cassiopea xamachana. We revealed the active proliferation zone at the early stage of bud formation. This zone continued to function during planuloid growth, providing the formation of polyp structures, and preserved in polyp calyx after metamorphosis. Its proliferation activity varied at different growth stages, whereas the localization remained relatively the same.

Keywords:

cnidaria, budding, development, polyp, scyphozoa, proliferation, asexual reproduction

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.
 

References

Adler, L. and Jarms, G. 2009. New insights into reproductive traits of scyphozoans: special methods of propagation in Sanderia malayensis Goette, 1886 (Pelagiidae, Semaeostomeae) enable establishing a new classification of asexual reproduction in the class Scyphozoa. Marine Biology 156(7):1411–1420. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-009-1181-6

Arai, M. N. 2008. The potential importance of podocysts to the formation of scyphozoan blooms: a review; pp. 241–246 in Pitt, K. A. and Purcell, J. E. (eds), Jellyfish Blooms: Causes, Consequences, and Recent Advances. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4020-9749-2_16

Balcer, L. J. and Black, R. E. 1991. Budding and strobilation in Aurelia (Scyphozoa, Cnidaria): Functional requirement and spatial patterns of nucleic acid synthesis. Roux's archives of developmental biology 200(1):45–50. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02457640

Bigelow, R. P. 1892. On a new species of Cassiopea from Jamaica. Zoologischer Anzeiger 15:212–214.

Bigelow, R. P. 1900. The anatomy and development of Cassiopea xamachana. Boston: Boston Society of Natural History. https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.31420

Bocharova, E. S. and Kozevich, I. A. 2011. Modes of reproduction in sea anemones (Cnidaria, Anthozoa). Biology Bulletin 38(9):849–860. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1062359011090020

Boero, F., Bouillon, J., Piraino, S., and Schmid, V. 2002. Asexual reproduction of the Hydrozoa (Cnidaria); pp. 141–159 in Progress in asexual reproduction. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Chapman, D. M. 1968. Structure, histochemistry and formation of the podocyst and cuticle of Aurelia aurita. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 48(1):187–208. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025315400032537

Clarkson, S. T. and Wolpert, L. 1967. Bud morphogenesis in Hydra. Nature 214(5090):780–783. https://doi.org/10.1038/214780a0

Curtis, S. K. and Cowden, R. R. 1974. Some aspects of regeneration in the scyphistoma of Cassiopea (Class Scyphozoa) as revealed by the use of antimetabolites and microspectrophotometry. American Zoologist 14(2):851–866. https://doi.org/10.1093/icb/14.2.851

da Silveira, F. L. and Morandini, A. C. 1997. Nausithoe aurea n. sp. (Scyphozoa: Coronatae: Nausithoidae), a species with two pathways of reproduction after strobilation: sexual and asexual. Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde 66(4):235–246. https://doi.org/10.1163/26660644-06604004

Fautin, D. G. 2002. Reproduction of cnidaria. Canadian Journal of Zoology 80(10):1735–1754. https://doi.org/10.1139/z02-133

Fuentes, V., Straehler-Pohl, I., Atienza, D., Franco, I., Tilves, U., Gentile, M., Acevedo, M., Olariaga, A., and Gili, J.-M. 2011. Life cycle of the jellyfish Rhizostoma pulmo (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae) and its distribution, seasonality and inter-annual variability along the Catalan coast and the Mar Menor (Spain, NW Mediterranean). Marine Biology 158(10):2247–2266. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00227-011-1730-7

Galliot, B. 2012. Hydra, a fruitful model system for 270 years. International Journal of Developmental Biology 56:411–423. https://doi.org/10.1387/ijdb.120086bg

Gilchrist, F. G. 1937. Budding and locomotion in the scyphistomas of Aurelia. The Biological Bulletin 72(1):99–124. https://doi.org/10.2307/1537544

Helm, R. R. 2018. Evolution and development of scyphozoan jellyfish. Biological Reviews 93(2):1228–1250. https://doi.org/10.1111/brv.12393

Hofmann, D. K., Fitt, W. K., and Fleck, J. 2003. Checkpoints in the life-cycle of Cassiopea spp.: control of metagenesis and metamorphosis in a tropical jellyfish. International Journal of Developmental Biology 40(1):331–338.

Hofmann, D. K. and Gottlieb, M. 1991. Bud formation in the scyphozoan Cassiopea andromeda: epithelial dynamics and fate map; pp. 53–59 in Williams, R. B., Cornelius, P. F. S., Hughes, R. G., and Robson, E. A. (eds), Coelenterate Biology: Recent Research on Cnidaria and Ctenophora. Developments in Hydrobiology, vol 66. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-3240-4_8

Hofmann, D. K., Neumann, R., and Henne, K. 1978. Strobilation, budding and initiation of scyphistoma morphogenesis in the rhizostome Cassiopea andromeda (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa). Marine Biology 47(2):161–176. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00395637

Holstein, T. W., Hobmayer, E., and David, C. N. 1991. Pattern of epithelial cell cycling in hydra. Developmental Biology 148(2):602–611. https://doi.org/10.1016/0012-1606(91)90277-A

Ikeda, H., Ohtsu, K., and Uye, S. I. 2011. Fine structure, histochemistry, and morphogenesis during excystment of the podocysts of the giant jellyfish Nemopilema nomurai (Scyphozoa, Rhizostomeae). The Biological Bulletin 221(3):248–260. https://doi.org/10.1086/BBLv221n3p248

Khabibulina, V. and Starunov, V. 2019. Musculature development in planuloids of Cassiopeia xamachana (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa). Zoomorphology 138(3):297–306. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00435-019-00444-6

Kikinger, R. 1992. Cotylorhiza tuberculata (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) — life history of a stationary population. Marine Ecology 13(4):333–362. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1439-0485.1992.tb00359.x

Lucas, C. H., Graham, W. M., and Widmer, C. 2012. Jellyfish life histories: role of polyps in forming and maintaining scyphomedusa populations. Advances in Marine Biology 63:133–196. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-394282-1.00003-X

Otto, J. J. and Campbell, R. D. 1977. Budding in Hydra attenuata: bud stages and fate map. Journal of Experimental Zoology 200(3):417–428. https://doi.org/10.1002/jez.1402000311

Pitt, K. A. 2000. Life history and settlement preferences of the edible jellyfish Catostylus mosaicus (Scyphozoa: Rhizostomeae). Marine Biology 136(2):269–279. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002270050685

Schiariti, A., Morandini, A. C., Jarms, G., von Glehn Paes, R., Franke, S., and Mianzan, H. 2014. Asexual reproduction strategies and blooming potential in Scyphozoa. Marine Ecology Progress Series 510:241–253. https://doi.org/10.3354/meps10798

Schindelin, J., Arganda-Carreras, I., Frise, E., Kaynig, V., Longair, M., Pietzsch, T., Preibisch, S., Rueden, C., Saalfeld, S., Schmid, B., Tinevez, J.-Y., White, D. J., Hartenstein, V., Eliceiri, K., Tomancak, P., and Cardona, A. 2012. Fiji: an open-source platform for biological-image analysis. Nature Methods 9(7):676–682. https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.2019

Shunatova, N. and Borisenko, I. 2020. Proliferating activity in a bryozoan lophophore. PeerJ 8:e9179. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.9179

Spangenberg, D. B. 1965. Cultivation of the life stages of Aurelia aurita under controlled conditions. Journal of Experimental Zoology 159(3):303–318. https://doi.org/10.1002/jez.1401590303

Sugiura, Y. 1963. On the life-history of rhizostome. Medusae I. Anotationes Zoologicae Japonensis 36(4):194–202.

Sugiura, Y. 1966. On the life‐history of rhizostome medusae IV. Cephea cephea. Embryologia 9(2):105–122. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1440-169X.1966.tb00219.x

Thieme, C. and Hofmann, D. K. 2003. Control of head morphogenesis in an invertebrate asexually produced larva-like bud (Cassiopea andromeda; Cnidaria: Scyphozoa). Development Genes and Evolution 213(3):127–133. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00427-003-0300-5

Van Lieshout, J. S. and Martin, V. J. 1992. Development of planuloid buds of Cassiopea xamachana (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa). Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 111(2):89–110. https://doi.org/10.2307/3226666

Werner, B. 1971. Stephanoscyphus planulophorus n. spec., ein neuer Scyphopolyp mit einem neuen Entwicklungsmodus. Helgoländer Wissenschaftliche Meeresuntersuchungen 22(1):120–140. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01611366

Widmer, C. L. 2006. Life cycle of Phacellophora camtschatica (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa). Invertebrate Biology 125(2):83–90. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7410.2006.00043.x

Widmer, C. L. 2008. Life Cycle of Chrysaora fuscescens (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) and a key to sympatric ephyrae. Pacific Science 62(1):71–82. https://doi.org/10.2984/1534-6188(2008)62[71:LCOCFC]2.0.CO;2

Wurm, C. A., Neumann, D., Schmidt, R., Egner, A., and Jakobs, S. 2010. Sample preparation for STED microscopy; pp. 185–199 in Papkovsky, D. (ed), Live Cell Imaging. Humana Press. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-60761-404-3_11

Published
2021-12-30
How to Cite
Khabibulina, V., & Starunov, V. (2021). Proliferation activity in the polyps of <em>Cassiopea xamachana</em&gt;: where the planuloid buds grow. Biological Communications, 66(4), 333–340. https://doi.org/10.21638/spbu03.2021.406
Section
Brief communications