Some aspects of theoretical soil identification
The problem of soil classification is complex. The difficulties are caused by high diversity of soil types, the lack of universally accepted definition of soil, as well as the criteria on which soil can be defined in diversity of morphological structure. In this paper justification of the definition of soil is discussed. Methodologically, the study aims to identify patterns of metabolism, like mechanism of the biological circulation of organic (plant) material. It is shown that studied mineral elements are converted into organic-mineral compounds that are accumulated in the studied layer by the transformation process of microbiological complex, enabling self-reproduction of new generations of plants. Studied mineral layer is transformed into biogenic accumulative layer. Biota and developed mineral layer in the process of mineral nutrition and biological circulation of organic (plant) materials form such an integral unity as natural formation ecosystem. Biogenic accumulative layer is the natural evolutional form, which is associated with stable reproduction of the biota and the ecosystem as a whole, meaning soil. The article also discusses the morphological diversity of soils in different climatic conditions. It is shown that under the biogenic accumulative layer mineral solum is usually considered as a soil profile, but it is an independent separate formation, genetically related to biogenic-accumulative layer. In the specific climatic conditions the subsoil formation forms itself morphologically. On the basis of the topics discussed the article provides a definition of the soil. Refs 9. Figs 1.
soil definition, humus, soil organic matter
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