Phylogenetic and Phylogeographic studies

  • Galina Gusarova Saint Petersburg State University, 7–9, Universitetskaya nab., Saint Petersburg, 199034, Russian Federation


Application of molecular markers in plant systematics led to the development of independent disciplines: molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography. They use genetic information (DNA sequences) to infer history of species and populations. This includes reconstruction of kinship, i.e. phylogenetic relationships, conclusions about directions of historical migrations, estimation of divergence time, inferences of demographic processes in ancestral populations etc. Using examples of flowering plants of various taxonomic ranks, one family, two genera and three species, we discuss the main questions addressed by phylogenetics and phylogeography, the key methodological approaches and methods of data analysis. All the projects described in the paper have been realized with the author’s participation at the National Centre for Biosystematics, Natural History Museum, University of Oslo (Norway).


phylogenetics, phylogeography, Euphrasia, Euphrasia minima, Rafflesiaceae, Lamium, Silene acaulis, Carex nigra


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How to Cite
Gusarova, G. (2013). Phylogenetic and Phylogeographic studies. Biological Communications, (3), 85–108. Retrieved from
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