Assessment of Macrophyte Biological Index for Rivers, and evaluation of physicochemical parameters in the Sakarya River Basin of Turkey

  • Arda Acemi Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Kocaeli University, 41001, İzmit, Kocaeli, Turkey
  • Halim Aytekin Ergül Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Kocaeli University, 41001, İzmit, Kocaeli, Turkey
  • Melih Kayal Investigating, Planning and Allocations Department, General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works, 06100, Çankaya, Ankara, Turkey
  • Fatih Ekmekçi Investigating, Planning and Allocations Department, General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works, 06100, Çankaya, Ankara, Turkey
  • Fazıl Özen Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Kocaeli University, 41001, İzmit, Kocaeli, Turkey


In this study, the Macrophyte Biological Index for Rivers (IBMR) method and physicochemical measurements were used to assess the trophic status of the Sakarya River Basin in Turkey. The most abundant macrophytes were Phragmites australis, Thypa latifolia, Juncus sp., and Paspalum distichum. The IBMR values varied between 6.00 and 13.00 in spring, and between 6.714 and 14.40 in the fall season. The sampling stations, which are under the influence of agricultural runoffs, domestic effluents, and industrial discharges, had hypoxia accompanied by eutrophic and/or hypertrophic conditions at least in one season. The individual trophy levels of the sampling sites in the basin have been assessed as mesotrophic to eutrophic. However, considering the average IBMR value of all stations, the general trophy level of the basin was close to eutrophic. The results indicate that the physicochemical parameters are affected by various effluents discharged to the basin as observed during field studies, and the obtained data would be useful to apply conservation measures.


ecological quality, eutrophication, IBMR, macrophyte, Sakarya River Basin


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How to Cite
Acemi, A., Ergül, H. A., Kayal, M., Ekmekçi, F., & Özen, F. (2021). Assessment of Macrophyte Biological Index for Rivers, and evaluation of physicochemical parameters in the Sakarya River Basin of Turkey. Biological Communications, 66(2), 151–159.
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