Emergence of reflexivity relation without identity matching-to-sample training in hooded crows (Corvus cornix)

  • Maria Samuleeva Faculty of Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskiye Gory, 1–12, Moscow, 119192, Russian Federation; Center for Biopsychological Research, Moscow Institute of Psychoanalysis, Kutuzovskij pr., 34, Moscow, 121170, Russian Federation https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6855-7046
  • Anna Smirnova Faculty of Biology, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Leninskiye Gory, 1–12, Moscow, 119192, Russian Federation https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4446-2990

Abstract

The ability to form equivalent relations between sign and referent—symbolization—is one of the important cognitive components of language. Equivalent relations have the properties of symmetry (if A→B then B→A), reflexivity (A→A, B→B), and transitivity (if A→B and B→C, then A→C). The current study evaluates whether reflexivity can be spontaneously revealed in hooded crows (Corvus cornix) without training after the formation of the symmetry relation. These birds were previously taught an arbitrary matching-to-sample task with the letters “S” and “V” as samples, and sets of images (same-sized and different-sized figures) as comparisons. Positive results in the transfer tests showed that the crows associated letters with the concepts of sameness/difference. After that, they successfully passed the symmetry test, in which samples and comparisons were switched around. In the present experiment we found out that the crows passed the reflexivity test (A→A, B→B) without identity training. We hypothesize that if the subject associates the sample not with certain stimuli but rather with concepts, it facilitates the formation of equivalence relations between them.

Keywords:

equivalence, reflexivity, symmetry, concept formation, identity matching-to-sample, arbitrary matching-to-sample, hooded crows

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.
 

References

Burlak, S. A. 2018. Origin of the language: facts, studies, hypotheses. Alpina non-fiction, Moscow. (In Russian)

Carr, D. and Felce D. 2000. Application of stimulus equivalence to language intervention for individuals with severe linguistic disabilities. Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability 25(3):181–205. https://doi.org/10.1080/13269780050144262

Dugdale, N. and Lowe, C. F. 2000. Testing for symmetry in the conditional discriminations of language-trained chimpanzees. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 73(1):5–22. https://doi.org/10.1901/jeab.2000.73-5

Frank, A. J. and Wasserman, E. A. 2005. Associative symmetry in the pigeon after successive matching-to-sample training. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 84(2):147–165. https://doi.org/10.1901/jeab.2005.115-04

Lionello-DeNolf, K. M. 2009. The search for symmetry: 25 years in review. Learning & behavior 37(2):188–203. https://doi.org/10.3758/LB.37.2.188

Medam, T., Marzouki, Y., Montant, M., and Fagot, J. 2016. Categorization does not promote symmetry in Guinea baboons (Papio papio). Animal Cognition 19(5):987–998. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10071-016-1003-4

Pepperberg, I. M. 2006. Ordinality and inferential abilities of a Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus). Journal of Comparative Psychology 120:205–216. https://doi.org/10.1037/0735-7036.120.3.205

Pepperberg, I. M. and Gordon, J. D. 2005. Number comprehension by a grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus), including a zero-like concept. Journal of Comparative Psychology 119(2):197–209. https://doi.org/10.1037/0735-7036.119.2.197

Samuleeva, M. V. and Smirnova, A. A. 2019a. The study of sigh learning process in hooded crows. Herald of Tver State University 1(53):203–217. (In Russian) https://doi.org/10.26456/vtbio61

Samuleeva, M. V. and Smirnova, A. A. 2019b. Study of symbolization process in hooded crows. Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat I P Pavlova 69(4):505–513. (In Russian)

Santos, J. R., Barros, R. S., and Galvão, O. Symmetry in Cebus apella. 29th Annual Meeting of the Association for Behavior Analysis. San Francisco. 2003.

Saunders, R. R. and Green, G. 1992. The nonequivalence of behavioral and mathematical equivalence. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 57:227–241. https://doi.org/10.1901/jeab.1992.57-227

Schusterman, R. J. and Kastak, D. A. 1993. California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) is capable of forming equivalence relations. The Psychological Record 43(4):823–839. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03395915

Sidman, M., Rauzin, R., Lazar, R., Cunningham, S., Tailby, W., and Carrigan, P. 1982. A search for symmetry in the conditional discriminations of rhesus monkeys, baboons, and children. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 37(1):23–44. https://doi.org/10.1901/jeab.1982.37-23

Sidman, M. and Tailby, W. 1982. Conditional discrimination vs. matching to sample: an expansion of the testing paradigm. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 37(1):5–22. https://doi.org/10.1901/jeab.1982.37-5

Smirnova, A. A. 2011. On the capability of birds for symbolization. Biology Bulletin 38(9):878–884. https://doi.org/10.1134/S106235901109007X

Smirnova, А. А., Lazareva, О. F., and Zorina, Z. A. 2000. Use of number by crows: investigation by matching and oddity learning. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of the Behavior 73:163–176. https://doi.org/10.1901/jeab.2000.73-163

Smirnova, А. А., Lazareva, О. F., and Zorina, Z. A. 2002. Prototype symbolization in hooded crows. Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat I P Pavlova 52(2):241–254. (In Russian)

Smirnova, A., Zorina, Z., Obozova, T., and Wasserman, E. 2015. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning. Current Biology 25(2):256–260. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2014.11.063

Sweeney, M. M. and Urcuioli, P. J. 2010. Reflexivity in pigeons. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 94(3):267–282. https://doi.org/10.1901/jeab.2010.94-267

Swisher, M. and Urcuioli, P. J. 2018. Reflexivity without identity matching training: A first demonstration. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 109(1):125–147. https://doi.org/10.1002/jeab.302

Tomonaga, M., Matsuzawa, T., Fujita, K., and Yamamoto, J. H. 1991. Emergence of symmetry in a visual conditional discrimination by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Psychological Reports 68(1):51–60. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1991.68.1.51

Urcuioli, P. J. 2008. Associative symmetry, antisymmetry, and a theory of pigeons'equivalence-class formation. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 90(3):257–282. https://doi.org/10.1901/jeab.2008.90-257

Urcuioli, P. J. 2011. Emergent identity matching after successive matching training, I: Reflexivity or generalized identity? Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 96(3):329–341. https://doi.org/10.1901/jeab.2011.96-329

Urcuioli, P. J. and Swisher, M. 2012. Emergent identity matching after successive matching training. II: Reflexivity or transitivity? Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior 97(1):5–27. https://doi.org/10.1901/jeab.2012.97-5

Wright, A. A. and Katz, J. S. 2006. Mechanisms of same/different concept learning in primates and avians. Behavioural Processes 72:234–254. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2006.03.009

Published
2020-06-05
How to Cite
Samuleeva, M., & Smirnova, A. (2020). Emergence of reflexivity relation without identity matching-to-sample training in hooded crows (<em>Corvus cornix</em&gt;). Biological Communications, 65(2), 157–162. https://doi.org/10.21638/spbu03.2020.202
Section
Full communications