4-Ketobacteriorhodopsin and features of its photocycle

  • Lyubov Khitrina Lomonosov Moscow State University, 1–12, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119234, Russian Federation


The article overviews the studies of 4-ketobacteriorhodopsin and its properties, namely spectral characteristics, peculiarities of fast kinetics at optical and electrical measurements, photocycle efficacy and its relation to opsin shift, preparation of individual isomers and peculiarities of its photocycle, rate and direction of dark and light-induced isomerization, nanotechnological aspects. It discusses some mistakes in interpretation of the research results, led to elaboration of photocycle scheme with three parallel cycles. To make comparisons the brief history of bacteriorhodopsin photocycle research is also taken into account.


bacteriorhodopsin, 4-ketoretinal, photocycle, 13-cis-cycle, cis-trans-isomerization of chromophore


Download data is not yet available.
How to Cite
Khitrina, L. (2012). 4-Ketobacteriorhodopsin and features of its photocycle. Biological Communications, (4), 82–92. Retrieved from https://biocomm.spbu.ru/article/view/3202
Full communications