Biological Communications 2022-05-04T22:38:47+03:00 Anton A. Nizhnikov Open Journal Systems <p>Biological Communications is a rebranded new title of the former journal «Vestnik of Saint Petersburg University. Series 3. Biology». The journal was founded as «Vestnik of Leningrad University» in 1946.&nbsp;Since 1953, it was published under several series. In 1956 the series «Biology» was first established.&nbsp;As its predecessors, Biological Communications is published at a quarterly&nbsp;basis.</p> Dynamics of weight loss of dolomite dropouts at different stages of dissolution in <em>Albic Retisol</em> 2022-05-04T22:38:36+03:00 Andrey Litvinovich Olga Pavlova Anton Lavrishchev Vladimir Bure Elmira Saljnikov <p>In a laboratory experiment in 2020, the dynamics of the decrease in mass of large particles of dolomite dropouts in acidic <em>Albic Retisol</em> was established. Dolomite dropouts were collected from the landfill of a road construction factory. The results of the laboratory experiment showed that after 114 days of composting, the loss of dolomite mass ranged from 8.7 to 34.2 % of its initial content. The loss of mass of particles during composting from 114 to 224 days slowed down and fluctuated, depending on the variant, from 2.2 to 5.1 % of the initial mass of dolomite. The mechanism of weathering was considered and the factors enhancing the rate of dissolution of dolomite dropouts in the soil were revealed. Linear empirical dependencies of the rate of dissolution of dolomite in soil at different stages of the experiment were developed. Clustering of the developed models was carried out according to the absolute values ​​of the rate of decrease in the mass of particles in the vessels. When selecting the dose of application of large particles of dolomite for reclamation of acidic soils and duration of their action, it is recommended to take into account the duration of time the dolomite spent in the landfill.</p> 2022-05-04T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Andrey Litvinovich, Olga Pavlova, Anton Lavrishchev, Vladimir Bure, Elmira Saljnikov Genome response of hippocampal cells to stress in male rats with different excitability of the nervous system 2022-05-04T22:38:47+03:00 Veronika Shcherbinina Alexander Vaido Diana Khlebaeva Natalia Dyuzhikova Eugene Daev <p>Changes of genome stability in hippocampal cells of male rats with hereditary high and low thresholds of <em>nervus tibialis</em>&nbsp;response to electric stimuli (HT and LT strains, respectively) were studied in unstressed and stressed animals. HT and LT originated from Wistar strain, males of which were also used as a control. The comet assay was used after prolonged emotional painful stressor action. There were no interstrain differences in the spontaneous percentage of DNA in comet tails (tDNA). However, the prolonged emotional pain stressor induced genome instability differently in animals of different strains. The highest level of DNA damage in hippocampal cells was shown in highly sensitive animals of LT strain. Males of Wistar strain had intermediate levels of tDNA, while HT animals had the lowest stress reactivity.</p> 2022-05-04T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Veronika Shcherbinina, Alexander Vaido, Diana Khlebaeva, Natalia Dyuzhikova, Eugene Daev Bird summer distribution patterns on islands in Onega Bay, White Sea 2022-05-04T22:38:40+03:00 Sergey Simonov Maria Matantseva <p>We studied avian populations and distribution patterns on 20 islands in Onega Bay, White Sea, with transect surveys completed to register selected biotic and abiotic factors in July 2020. Bird population densities proved to be the highest on small secluded islands rarely visited by humans and on treeless islands. We also found positive correlations between the species richness and the island size, presence of woody vegetation, and human visitation. It is noteworthy that although human interference can cause species diversity on the islands to increase, the relative abundance of birds declined. Furthermore, species diversity increased due to the arrival of species atypical of this region and, hence, lacking the complete set of requisite adaptations. Further human pressure on the islands can eventually destabilise their avifaunal complexes and aggravate the current transformation of northern communities in response to climate change.</p> 2022-05-04T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Sergey Simonov, Maria Matantseva Osteogenic differentiation: a universal cell program of heterogeneous mesenchymal cells or a similar extracellular matrix mineralizing phenotype? 2022-05-04T22:38:43+03:00 Arseniy Lobov Anna Malashicheva <p>Despite the popularity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), many fundamental aspects of their physiology still have not been understood. The information accumulated to date argues that MSCs from different sources vary in their differentiation potential and, probably, in molecular mechanisms of trilineage differentiation. Therefore, this review consists of two parts. Firstly, we focus on the data on inter- and intra-source variation of MSCs. We discuss in detail MSC variation at the single-cell level and direct omics comparison of MSCs from four main tissue sources: bone marrow, adipose tissue, umbilical cord and tooth. MSCs from all tissues represent heterogeneous populations in vivo with sub-populational structures reflecting their functional role in the tissue. After in vitro cultivation MSCs lose their natural heterogeneity, but obtain a new one, which might be regarded as a cultivation artifact. Nevertheless, MSCs from various sources still keep their functional differences after in vitro cultivation. In the second part of the review, we discuss how these differences influence molecular mechanisms of osteogenic differentiation. We highlight at least one subtype of mesenchymal cells differentiation with matrix mineralization — odontoblastic differentiation. We also discuss differences in molecular mechanisms of pathological heterotopic osteogenic differentiation of valve interstitial and tumor cells, but these assumptions need additional empirical confirmation. Finally, we observe differences in osteogenic differentiation molecular mechanisms of several MSC types and argue that this differentiation might be influenced by the cell context. Nevertheless, bone marrow and adipose MSCs seem to undergo osteogenic differentiation similarly, by the same mechanisms.</p> 2022-05-04T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Arseniy Lobov, Anna Malashicheva Olfactory lateralization in non-human mammals: a mini-review 2022-05-04T22:38:32+03:00 Ekaterina Berezina Andrey Giljov Karina Karenina <p>The asymmetric use of nostrils and few contralateral projections in olfactory neural pathways allow us to suppose the dominance of one hemisphere in the processing of various odours in non-human mammals. Although olfaction is the most important sensory domain for many mammals, lateralization of this sense is poorly studied in this group of animals, and the existing limited knowledge is based on experiments on laboratory and domestic mammals. Here we review the most important studies in this developing field, with an emphasis on the methods used. Most of the recent studies indicate the dominance of the right hemisphere in the processing of social and aversive odours and analysis of familiarity of the olfactory stimuli. Dominance of the left hemisphere was found only in a form of a slight trend in the perception of food odour. Almost all existing results on olfactory lateralization are in line with the well-studied patterns of visual lateralization. However, further focused investigations are needed to confirm this consistency. Studies on a wider range of species and stimuli will help to get a better understanding of the relative hemispheric roles in olfactory perception.</p> 2022-05-04T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Ekaterina Berezina, Andrey Giljov, Karina Karenina Thioflavin S binds non-amyloid protein structures in lampbrush chromosomes of <em>Gallus gallus domesticus</em> 2022-05-04T22:38:45+03:00 Vera Siniukova Svetlana Galkina Alexey Galkin <p>Proteins that normally function in amyloid form are found in bacteria, yeast, plants and vertebrates, including humans. In particular, amyloid fibrils and amyloid-like structures are described in the germ cells of various organisms. Recently we showed that in chicken oocytes there are some nuclear structures that are stained by the amyloid-specific dye thioflavin S. Here we demonstrate that thioflavin S binds giant terminal RNP aggregates in chicken lampbrush chromosomes. However, these structures are not stained with Congo red and conformation-dependent anti-amyloid antibodies. Thus, thioflavin S stains chromosome-associated proteins that do not have amyloid properties. These data indicate that thioflavin S must be used with caution when identifying new functional and pathological amyloids.</p> 2022-05-04T00:00:00+03:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Vera Siniukova, Svetlana Galkina, Alexey Galkin